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Monday, December 6

  1. page Summary and Conclusions edited ... Further confirmation of the eruption date focuses on archaeological evidence. In the absence o…
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    Further confirmation of the eruption date focuses on archaeological evidence. In the absence of comprehensive written records the analysis of changing pottery styles has provided an excellent chronology of Aegean trade and history. The date provided by pottery samples occurs around 1550 BC, possibly marking the beginning of the eruption and may not represent the wide-spread destruction experienced with the final pyroclastic flows (Antonopolus, 1992).
    Radiocarbon dating, dendrology, ice core analysis, and evaluation of the archaeological record place this event in the Late Bronze Age with a window of 50-200 years prior to Mycenaean superiority in the Aegean. Regardless of the specific date of the eruption, the evidence strongly favors a substantial impact on the Cycladian and Minoan civilizations of the time.
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    resilience and rebuiltrebuilt, only to
    But was the eruption responsible for the final Mycenaean dominance of Crete? While both camps have valid arguments, perhaps they are not mutually exclusive. Mycenaeans surely lived in a warrior's world. A discussion of how warfare affected the region can be found at this wiki site Warfare in the Aegean. War may well have played a part in the ultimate shift from Minoan to Mycenaean culture on the island, but without the preceding years of devastation and hardship, the Minoans may have been better prepared to defend their homeland and way of life. The real question may lie in determining if the Minoans were conquered or simply assimilated, the answer to which requires further exploration and analysis.
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    tsunami of 20042004, and our
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    11:28 am
  2. page Summary and Conclusions edited ... Strogili, named for its shape, was once a singular circular island but is now known as the San…
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    Strogili, named for its shape, was once a singular circular island but is now known as the Santorini Archipelago. Approximately 16 km in diameter prior to the eruption it was also known as Kalleste 'the most beautiful island." Renamed Thera in the Middle Bronze age, the island was home to an active trade industry and sophisticated culture (Antonopolus, 1992). Today the island is composed of the mainland and the sparsely inhabited island of Therasia. In addition there are five uninhabited islands, Nea Kameni, Palaia, Kameni, Aspronisi and Christiani, created by the eruption.
    As the only active volcano in the Aegean, today's Santorini has long fascinated scientist of almost every discipline, capturing the imagination of people everywhere. The cataclysmic eruption on the southern most island in the Cycladian Archipelago forever changed the landscape and structure of Aegean culture and trade.
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    two independent samplesamples six times
    Further confirmation of the eruption date focuses on archaeological evidence. In the absence of comprehensive written records the analysis of changing pottery styles has provided an excellent chronology of Aegean trade and history. The date provided by pottery samples occurs around 1550 BC, possibly marking the beginning of the eruption and may not represent the wide-spread destruction experienced with the final pyroclastic flows (Antonopolus, 1992).
    Radiocarbon dating, dendrology, ice core analysis, and evaluation of the archaeological record place this event in the Late Bronze Age with a window of 50-200 years prior to Mycenaean superiority in the Aegean. Regardless of the specific date of the eruption, the evidence strongly favors a substantial impact on the Cycladian and Minoan civilizations of the time.
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    11:24 am
  3. page Evidence Against a Volcanic Disruption of Trade edited ... Home Next => Did Could Trade Have Continue Unabated? Most of the arguments against …
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    DidCould Trade Have Continue Unabated?
    Most of the arguments against volcanic activity as a cause in the disruption of trade in the Aegean, and the precursor to the downfall of the Minoan society revolve around the dating and perceived severity of the eruption and it's aftermath.
    {santorini-volcano-erruption.jpg} http://www.explorecrete.com/archaeology/minoan-civilization-destruction.html
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    However S.W. Manning of the Thera Foundation concludes that:
    "The existing balance of probabilities must be held to support a later 17th century BC date for the eruption of Thera. In turn, the LM IA period must be placed in the 17th century BC, and a New 'high' Aegean Late Bronze Age chronology is both necessary and plausible"
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    Initial analysis of the cores suggested that
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    up to two hundred200 years, past
    Evidence pointing to outside conquest by the Mycenaeans include formalized styles of pottery that bear a striking similarity to those on mainland Greece, Linear B tablets which reflect a mainland Greek influence, and destruction which includes evidence of fire found in debris layers at the time of Mycenaean occupation of Crete.
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    11:22 am
  4. page Evidence For a Volcanic Disruption of Trade edited ... {tsunami-crete.jpg} http://www.explorecrete.com/archaeology/minoan-civilization-destruction.ht…
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    {tsunami-crete.jpg} http://www.explorecrete.com/archaeology/minoan-civilization-destruction.htmlThe videos below support the position that pumice from Thera is found on Crete at the Palace of Knossos. They also provides an interesting model of the tsunami caused by the Thera eruption and the impact on Crete as the island is hit by several sequential tsunami waves.
    While it is clear that the Thera eruption didn't immediately wipe out the the Minoan civilization, it did weaken them physically and emotionally, leaving them vulnerable to Mycenaean encroachment. Indications of a subtle shift in Minoan culture are evident as new artistic styles draw on the power of the ocean, and sea monsters assume a prominent place on ritual vases. This emerging marine style becomes incorporated into the Minoan religion and a culture once considered peaceful takes on a darker persona. Ritualistic sacrifices have been found in the Palace at Knossos, perhaps suggesting the Minoans had begun searching for reason in a world turned on end and were attempting to appease what they perceived as angry gods.
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    susceptible to encroachmentintrusion from without.
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    11:18 am
  5. page Evidence For a Volcanic Disruption of Trade edited ... {tsunami-crete.jpg} http://www.explorecrete.com/archaeology/minoan-civilization-destruction.ht…
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    {tsunami-crete.jpg} http://www.explorecrete.com/archaeology/minoan-civilization-destruction.htmlThe videos below support the position that pumice from Thera is found on Crete at the Palace of Knossos. They also provides an interesting model of the tsunami caused by the Thera eruption and the impact on Crete as the island is hit by several sequential tsunami waves.
    While it is clear that the Thera eruption didn't immediately wipe out the the Minoan civilization, it did weaken them physically and emotionally, leaving them vulnerable to Mycenaean encroachment. Indications of a subtle shift in Minoan culture are evident as new artistic styles draw on the power of the ocean, and sea monsters assume a prominent place on ritual vases. This emerging marine style becomes incorporated into the Minoan religion and a culture once considered peaceful takes on a darker persona. Ritualistic sacrifices have been found in the Palace at Knossos, perhaps suggesting the Minoans had begun searching for reason in a world turned on end and were attempting to appease what they perceived as angry gods.
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    P. M. WarrenAWarrenThe diagram above catalogs a "Room of Children's Bones" where a minimum of
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    were found intermingled in a
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    society to both deteriorate from within.within and become susceptible to encroachment from without.
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    11:16 am
  6. page Evidence For a Volcanic Disruption of Trade edited ... McCoy and Heiken suggest that wave heights exceeded 40m with runup distance reaching up to ele…
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    McCoy and Heiken suggest that wave heights exceeded 40m with runup distance reaching up to eleven miles in the coastal settlements. They estimate the volcanic plume reached heights of up to 36km. These heights, in association with the high sulfur content, suggest that one consequence of the eruption would have been global cooling that lasting several years.
    Artist rendering of the Thera Eruption-Induced Tsunami Approaching the Coast of Crete
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    of Knossos. ItThey also provides
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    darker persona. Ritualist sacraficesRitualistic sacrifices have been
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    Palace at Knosses,Knossos, perhaps suggesting
    {Knosses001.jpg} Human Bones from a Late Minoan IB House at Knossos S. M. Wall, J. H. Musgrave, P. M. WarrenA minimum of four murdered children were found in a burnt destruction layer, along with ritual vases which may indicate the desperation the Minoans felt following the great natural disasters set in motion by the Thera eruption. It is believed that the Minoan culture changed after the tsunamis with a movement away from their traditional structure and organization, weakening the priest-kings and allowing the Minoan society to deteriorate from within.
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    11:11 am
  7. page Evidence For a Volcanic Disruption of Trade edited ... McCoy and Heiken suggest that wave heights exceeded 40m with runup distance reaching up to ele…
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    McCoy and Heiken suggest that wave heights exceeded 40m with runup distance reaching up to eleven miles in the coastal settlements. They estimate the volcanic plume reached heights of up to 36km. These heights, in association with the high sulfur content, suggest that one consequence of the eruption would have been global cooling that lasting several years.
    Artist rendering of the Thera Eruption-Induced Tsunami Approaching the Coast of Crete
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    videos below supportssupport the position
    While it is clear that the Thera eruption didn't immediately wipe out the the Minoan civilization, it did weaken them physically and emotionally, leaving them vulnerable to Mycenaean encroachment. Indications of a subtle shift in Minoan culture are evident as new artistic styles draw on the power of the ocean, and sea monsters assume a prominent place on ritual vases. This emerging marine style becomes incorporated into the Minoan religion and a culture once considered peaceful takes on a darker persona. Ritualist sacrafices have been found in the Palace at Knosses, perhaps suggesting the Minoans had begun searching for reason in a world turned on end and were attempting to appease what they perceived as angry gods.
    {Knosses001.jpg} Human Bones from a Late Minoan IB House at Knossos S. M. Wall, J. H. Musgrave, P. M. WarrenA minimum of four murdered children were found in a burnt destruction layer, along with ritual vases which may indicate the desperation the Minoans felt following the great natural disasters set in motion by the Thera eruption. It is believed that the Minoan culture changed after the tsunamis with a movement away from their traditional structure and organization, weakening the priest-kings and allowing the Minoan society to deteriorate from within.
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    11:09 am
  8. page Evidence For a Volcanic Disruption of Trade edited ... Next => Short and Long Term Consequence ... striking of all the regional McCoy and H…
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    Next =>
    Short and Long Term Consequence
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    striking of all the regional
    McCoy and Heiken suggest that wave heights exceeded 40m with runup distance reaching up to eleven miles in the coastal settlements. They estimate the volcanic plume reached heights of up to 36km. These heights, in association with the high sulfur content, suggest that one consequence of the eruption would have been global cooling that lasting several years.
    Artist rendering of the Thera Eruption-Induced Tsunami Approaching the Coast of Crete
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    11:09 am
  9. page Mechanics of Volcanic Activity edited ... Volcanic eruptions can range from gentle lava flows inching over the edge of volcanic cones, t…
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    Volcanic eruptions can range from gentle lava flows inching over the edge of volcanic cones, to composite volcanoes which shoot fountains of lava skyward expelling great clouds of steam and gas, roaring with life as fragmented lava and ash rains back to earth. Thera is an example of a composite volcano which erupted with such force that much of the summit was blown off forming the caldera seen today.
    Determining how disruptive this event was to the surrounding islands and the overall economic outlook for the Cycladeic and Minoan cultures first requires an understanding of the magnitude of the eruption.
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    (Thera) caldera was begun in 2006 by the Graduate School
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    (HCMR) in Athens was begunAthens, in order
    For a detailed look at their 2006 expeditions visit http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06blacksea/background/plan/plan.html
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    debris field, it was confirmed that the Thera eruption became known aswas one of
    The international research team found volcanic pumice and ash in deposits averaging 100 feet thick and spread as far as 19 miles out in every direction.
    Consequent tsunamis were an almost certain occurrence. The 1883 eruption of Krakatau was far smaller and created a 100 foot high tsunami responsible for 36,000 deaths as well as pyroclastic flows which traveled to surrounding islands killing an additional 1,000 people. (McLeish, 2006)
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    11:08 am

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